Afghan special forces arrived at the scene of ensuing chaos to reinforce the police already on ground.
More than 75 prisoners escaped, which led to the police being forced to divert manpower to try to recapture the prisoners.
The Islamic State group has claimed responsibility for the attack, just a day after an official report by the special forces that they had killed a senior commander of the group near Jalalabad, the provincial capital of Nangarhar.
Jalalabad is some 130 kilometres (80 miles) away from east of Kabul, stretching out to the highway linked to the Khyber pass and the Pakistani city of Peshawar.
According to a recent report by the United Nations, nearly 2,200 IS members are in Afghanistan, with a vast majority of them in territorial retreat.
Though IS leadership has been depleted, the group is still capable of carrying out high-profile attacks.